# Running an Experiment¶

## Before You Begin¶

This section describes how to run an experiment using the Driverless AI UI. Before you begin, it is best that you understand the available options that you can specify. Note that only a dataset and a target column are required to be specified, but Driverless AI provides a variety of experiment and expert settings that you can use to build your models.

After you have a comfortable working knowledge of these options, proceed to the New Experiments section.

## Experiment Settings¶

This section describes the settings that are available when running an experiment.

### Dropped Columns¶

Dropped columns are columns that you do not want to be used as predictors in the experiment.

### Validation Dataset¶

The validation dataset is used for tuning the modeling pipeline. If provided, the entire training data will be used for training, and validation of the modeling pipeline is performed with only this validation dataset. This is not generally recommended, but can make sense if the data are non-stationary. In such a case, the validation dataset can help to improve the generalization performance on shifting data distributions.

This dataset must have the same number of columns (and column types) as the training dataset. Also note that if provided, the validation set is not sampled down, so it can lead to large memory usage, even if accuracy=1 (which reduces the train size).

### Test Dataset¶

The test dataset is used for testing the modeling pipeline and creating test predictions. The test set is never used during training of the modeling pipeline. (Results are the same whether a test set is provided or not.) If a test dataset is provided, then test set predictions will be available at the end of the experiment.

### Weight Column¶

Optional: Column that indicates the observation weight (a.k.a. sample or row weight), if applicable. This column must be numeric with values >= 0. Rows with higher weights have higher importance. The weight affects model training through a weighted loss function, and affects model scoring through weighted metrics. The weight column is not used when making test set predictions (but scoring of the test set predictions can use the weight).

### Fold Column¶

Optional: Column to use to create stratification folds during (cross-)validation, if applicable. Must be of integer or categorical type. Rows with the same value in the fold column represent cohorts, and each cohort is assigned to exactly one fold. This can help to build better models when the data is grouped naturally. If left empty, the data is assumed to be i.i.d. (identically and independently distributed). For example, when viewing data for a pneumonia dataset, `person_id`

would be a good Fold Column. This is because the data may include multiple diagnostic snapshots per person, and we want to ensure that the same person’s characteristics show up only in either the training or validation frames, but not in both to avoid data leakage. Note that a fold column cannot be specified if a validation set is used.

### Time Column¶

Optional: Column that provides a time order (time stamps for observations), if applicable. Can improve model performance and model validation accuracy for problems where the target values are auto-correlated with respect to the ordering (per time-series group).

The values in this column must be a datetime format understood by pandas.to_datetime(), like “2017-11-29 00:30:35” or “2017/11/29”, or integer values. If [AUTO] is selected, all string columns are tested for potential date/datetime content and considered as potential time columns. If a time column is found, feature engineering and model validation will respect the causality of time. If [OFF] is selected, no time order is used for modeling and data may be shuffled randomly (any potential temporal causality will be ignored).

When your data has a date column, then in most cases, specifying [AUTO] for the Time Column will be sufficient. However, if you select a specific date column, then Driverless AI will provide you with an additional side menu. At a minimum, this side menu will allow you to specify the number of weeks you want to predict and after how many weeks do you want to start predicting. These options default to [AUTO]. Or you can select Expert Settings to specify per-group periodicities, such as a time-store group or a time-customer_id group. You can also adjust the period size and type.

**Note**: Engineered features will be used for MLI when a time series experiment is built. This is because munged time series features are more useful features for MLI compared to raw time series features.

Refer to Time Series in Driverless AI for more information about time series experiments in Driverless AI and to see a time series example.

### Accuracy¶

The following table describes how the Accuracy value affects a Driverless AI experiment.

Accuracy | Max Rows x Cols | Ensemble Level | Target Transformation | Parameter Tuning Level | Num Individuals | Num Folds | Only First Fold Model | Distribution Check |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 100K | 0 | False | 0 | Auto | 3 | True | No |

2 | 1M | 0 | False | 0 | Auto | 3 | True | No |

3 | 50M | 0 | True | 1 | Auto | 3 | True | No |

4 | 100M | 0 | True | 1 | Auto | 3-4 | True | No |

5 | 200M | 1 | True | 1 | Auto | 3-4 | True | Yes |

6 | 500M | 2 | True | 1 | Auto | 3-5 | True | Yes |

7 | 750M | <=3 | True | 2 | Auto | 3-10 | Auto | Yes |

8 | 1B | <=3 | True | 2 | Auto | 4-10 | Auto | Yes |

9 | 2B | <=3 | True | 3 | Auto | 4-10 | Auto | Yes |

10 | 10B | <=4 | True | 3 | Auto | 4-10 | Auto | Yes |

**Note**: A check for a shift in the distribution between train and test is done for accuracy >= 5.

The list below includes more information about the parameters that are used when calculating accuracy.

**Max Rows x Cols:**The maximum number of rows x colums to use in model training- For classification, stratified random row sampling is performed (by target)
- For regression, random row sampling is performed

**Ensemble Level:**The level of ensembling done for the final model (if no time column is selected)- 0: single model
- 1: 1x 4-fold models ensembled together
- 2: 2x 5-fold models ensembled together
- 3: 5x 5-fold models ensembled together
- 4: 8x 5-fold models ensembled together
- If ensemble level > 0, then the final model score shows an error estimate that includes the data generalization error (standard deviation of scores over folds) and the error in the estimate of the score (bootstrap score’s standard deviation with sample size same as data size).
- For accuracy >= 8, the estimate of the error in the validation score reduces, and the error in the score is dominated by the data generalization error.
- The estimate of the error in the test score is estimated by the maximum of the bootstrap with sample size equal to the test set size and the validation score’s error.

**Target Transformation:**Try target transformations and choose the transformation(s) that have the best score(s).Possible transformations: identity, unit_box, log, square, square root, double square root, inverse, Anscombe, logit, sigmoid

**Parameter Tuning Level:**The level of parameter tuning done- 0: no parameter tuning
- 1: 8 different parameter settings
- 2: 16 different parameter settings
- 3: 32 different parameter settings
- 4: 64 different parameter settings
- Optimal model parameters are chosen based on a combination of the model’s accuracy, training speed, and complexity.

**Num Individuals:**The number of individuals in the population for the genetic algorithms- Each individual is a gene. The more genes, the more combinations of features are tried.
- The number of individuals is automatically determined and can depend on the number of GPUs. Typical values are between 4 and 16.

**Num Folds:**The number of internal validation splits done for each pipeline- If the problem is a classification problem, then stratified folds are created.

**Only First Fold Model:**Whether to only use the first fold split for internal validation to save time- Example: Setting Num Folds to 3 and Only First Fold Model = True means you are splitting the data into 67% training and 33% validation.
- If “Only First Fold Model” is False, then errors on the score shown during feature engineering include the data generalization error (standard deviation of scores over folds) and the error in the estimate of the score (bootstrap score’s standard deviation with a sample size the same as the data size).
- If “Only First Fold Model” is True, then errors on the score shown during feature engineering include only the error in the estimate of the score (bootstrap score’s standard deviation with a sample size same as the data size).
- For accuracy >= 8, the estimate of the error in the score reduces, and the error in the score is dominated by the data generalization error. This provides the most accurate generalization error.

**Early Stopping Rounds**: Time-based means based upon the Time table below.**Distribution Check:**Checks whether validation or test data are drawn from the same distribution as the training data. Note that this is purely informative to the user. Driverless AI does not take information from the test set into consideration during training.**Strategy:**Feature selection strategy (to prune-away features that do not clearly give improvement to model score). Feature selection is triggered by interpretability. Strategy = “FS” if interpretability >= 6; otherwise strategy is None.

### Time¶

This specifies the relative time for completing the experiment (i.e., higher settings take longer). Early stopping will take place if the experiment doesn’t improve the score for the specified amount of iterations.

Time | Iterations | Early Stopping Rounds |
---|---|---|

1 | 1-5 | None |

2 | 10 | 5 |

3 | 30 | 5 |

4 | 40 | 5 |

5 | 50 | 10 |

6 | 100 | 10 |

7 | 150 | 15 |

8 | 200 | 20 |

9 | 300 | 30 |

10 | 500 | 50 |

**Note**: See the Accuracy table for cases when not based upon time.

### Interpretability¶

The higher the interpretability setting, the lower the complexity of the engineered features and of the final model(s).

Interpretability | Ensemble Level | Monotonicity Constraints |
---|---|---|

<= 5 | <= 3 | Disabled |

>= 6 | <= 2 | Disabled |

>= 7 | <= 2 | Enabled |

>= 8 | <= 1 | Enabled |

10 | 0 | Enabled |

**Monotonicity Constraints:**If enabled, the model will satisfy knowledge about monotonicity in the data and monotone relationships between the predictors and the target variable. For example, in house price prediction, the house price should increase with lot size and number of rooms, and should decrease with crime rate in the area. If enabled, Driverless AI will automatically determine if monotonicity is present and enforce it in its modeling pipelines.

## Expert Settings¶

This section describes the Expert Settings options that are available when starting an experiment. Note that the default values for these options are derived from the environment variables in the config.toml file. Refer to the Setting Environment Variables section for more information.

### XGBoost GBM Models¶

This option allows you to specify whether to build XGBoost models as part of the experiment (for both the feature engineering part and the final model). XGBoost is a type of gradient boosting method that has been widely successful in recent years due to its good regularization techniques and high accuracy.

### XGBoost GLM Models¶

This option allows you to specify whether to build GLM models (generalized linear models) as part of the experiment (usually only for the final model unless it’s used exclusively). GLMs are very interpretable models with one coefficient per feature, an intercept term and a link function.

### TensorFlow Models (alpha)¶

This option allows you to specify whether to build TensorFlow models as part of the experiment (usually only for text features engineering and for the final model unless it’s used exlusively). Note that this option is in an alpha state and MOJOs are not yet supported (only Python scoring pipelines).

### RuleFit Support (alpha)¶

This option allows you to specify whether to build RuleFit models as part of the experiment. Note that this option is still in an alpha state and MOJOs are not yet supported (only Python scoring pipelines). Note that multiclass classification is not yet supported for RuleFit models. Rules are stored to text files in the experiment directory for now.

### LightGBM Support (alpha)¶

This option allows you to specify whether to build LightGBM models as part of the experiment. Note that this option is still in an alpha state and MOJOs are not yet supported (only Python scoring pipelines). Note that multiclass classification is not yet supported for RuleFit models. Rules are stored to text files in the experiment directory for now.

### Data Distribution Shift Detection¶

Specify whether Driverless AI should detect data distribution shifts between train/valid/test datasets (if provided). Currently, this information is only presented to the user and not acted upon.

### Time Series Lag-Based Recipe¶

This recipe specifies whether to include Time Series lag features when training a model with a provided (or autodetected) time column. Lag features are the primary automatically generated time series features and represent a variable’s past values. At a given sample with time stamp \(t\), features at some time difference \(T\) (lag) in the past are considered. For example if the sales today are 300, and sales of yesterday are 250, then the lag of one day for sales is 250. Lags can be created on any feature as well as on the target. Lagging variables are important in time series because knowing what happened in different time periods in the past can greatly facilitate predictions for the future. More information about time series lag is available in the Time Series Use Case: Sales Forecasting section.

### Make Python Scoring Pipeline¶

Specify whether to automatically build a Python Scoring Pipeline for the experiment. If enabled, then when the experiment is completed, the Python Scoring Pipeline can be immediately downloaded. If disabled, the Python Scoring Pipeline will have to be built separately after the experiment is complete.

### Make MOJO Scoring Pipeline¶

Specify whether to automatically build a MOJO (Java) Scoring Pipeline for the experiment. If enabled, then when the experiment is completed, the MOJO Scoring Pipeline can be immediately downloaded. If disabled, the MOJO Scoring Pipeline will have to be built separately after the experiment is complete.

### Smart Imbalanced Sampling (binary)¶

Specify whether to enable Driverless AI’s smart imbalanced sampling. It may help in cases with high class imbalance, depending on the data.

### Random Seed¶

Specify a random seed for the experiment. When a seed is defined and the reproducible button is enabled (not by default), the algorithm will behave deterministically.

### Max Pipeline Features¶

Specify the maximum number of features to include in the final model’s feature engineering pipeline. If -1 is specified, then Driverless AI will automatically determine the number of features.

### Feature Engineering Effort (0..10)¶

Specify a value from 0 to 10 for the Driverless AI feature engineering effort. Higher values generally lead to more time (and memory) spent in feature engineering.

### Max Feature Interaction Depth¶

Specify the maximum number of features to be used for interaction features like grouping for target encoding, weight of evidence and other likelihood estimates.

### Max Allowed Fraction of Uniques for Integer and Categorical Cols¶

Specify the maximum fraction of unique values for integer and categorical columns. If the column has a larger fraction of unique values than that, it will be considered an ID column and ignored.

### Threshold for String Columns to be Treated as Text¶

Specify the threshold value (from 0 to 1) for string columns to be treated as text (0.0 - text; 1.0 - string). This value defaults to 0.3.

### Max TensorFlow Epochs¶

When building TensorFlow models, specify the maximum number of epochs to train models with (it might stop earlier). This option is ignored if **TensorFlow models** is disabled.

### Max TensorFlow Epochs NLP¶

When building TensorFlow NLP features (for text data), specify the maximum number of epochs to train feature engineering models with (it might stop earlier). This option is ignored if **TensorFlow models** is disabled.

### Max Number of Trees¶

Specify the upper limit on the number of trees for all tree models (XGBoost, LightGBM). Depending on accuracy settings, a fraction of this limit will be used.

### Max Learning Rate for Tree Models¶

Specify the maximum learning rate for tree models during feature engineering. Larger values can speed up feature engineering, but can hurt accuracy.

### Number of Cores to Use¶

Specify the number of cores to use for the experiment. Note that if you specify 0, then all available cores will be used. Lower values can reduce memory usage, but might slow down the experiment.

### #GPUs/Model¶

Specify the number of GPUs to user per model. A value of -1 specifies to use all available GPUs. Values other than 1 or -1 are experimental. If -1 is used, the number of GPUs per experiment must be -1 as well, and you should only run 1 experiment at a time for best results.

### #GPUs/Experiment¶

Specify the number of GPUs to user per experiment. A value of -1 specifies to use all available GPUs. Must be at least as large as the number of GPUs to use per model (or -1).

### GPU Starting ID¶

Specify the GPU starting ID (0 is the first GPU).

## Scorers¶

### Classification or Regression¶

**GINI**(Gini Coefficient): The Gini index is a well-established method to quantify the inequality among values of a frequency distribution, and can be used to measure the quality of a binary classifier. A Gini index of zero expresses perfect equality (or a totally useless classifier), while a Gini index of one expresses maximal inequality (or a perfect classifier).

The Gini index is based on the Lorenz curve. The Lorenz curve plots the true positive rate (y-axis) as a function of percentiles of the population (x-axis).

The Lorenz curve represents a collective of models represented by the classifier. The location on the curve is given by the probability threshold of a particular model. (i.e., Lower probability thresholds for classification typically lead to more true positives, but also to more false positives.)

The Gini index itself is independent of the model and only depends on the Lorenz curve determined by the distribution of the scores (or probabilities) obtained from the classifier.

### Regression¶

**R2**(R Squared): The R2 value represents the degree that the predicted value and the actual value move in unison. The R2 value varies between 0 and 1 where 0 represents no correlation between the predicted and actual value and 1 represents complete correlation.

Calculating the R2 value for linear models is mathematically equivalent to \(1 - SSE/SST\) (or \(1 - \text{residual sum of squares}/\text{total sum of squares}\)). For all other models, this equivalence does not hold, so the \(1 - SSE/SST\) formula cannot be used. In some cases, this formula can produce negative R2 values, which is mathematically impossible for a real number. Because Driverless AI does not necessarily use linear models, the R2 value is calculated using the squared Pearson correlation coefficient.

R2 equation:

\[R2 = \frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i-\bar{x})(y_i-\bar{y})}{\sqrt{\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i-\bar{x})^2\sum_{i=1}^{n}(y_i-\bar{y})^2}}\]Where:

- x is the predicted target value
- y is the actual target value

**MSE**(Mean Squared Error): The MSE metric measures the average of the squares of the errors or deviations. MSE takes the distances from the points to the regression line (these distances are the “errors”) and squaring them to remove any negative signs. MSE incorporates both the variance and the bias of the predictor.

MSE also gives more weight to larger differences. The bigger the error, the more it is penalized. For example, if your correct answers are 2,3,4 and the algorithm guesses 1,4,3, then the absolute error on each one is exactly 1, so squared error is also 1, and the MSE is 1. But if the algorithm guesses 2,3,6, then the errors are 0,0,2, the squared errors are 0,0,4, and the MSE is a higher 1.333. The smaller the MSE, the better the model’s performance. (

Tip: MSE is sensitive to outliers. If you want a more robust metric, try mean absolute error (MAE).)MSE equation:

\[MSE = \frac{1}{N} \sum_{i=1}^{N}(y_i -\hat{y}_i)^2\]

**RMSE**(Root Mean Squared Error): The RMSE metric evaluates how well a model can predict a continuous value. The RMSE units are the same as the predicted target, which is useful for understanding if the size of the error is of concern or not. The smaller the RMSE, the better the model’s performance. (**Tip**: RMSE is sensitive to outliers. If you want a more robust metric, try mean absolute error (MAE).)RMSE equation:

\[RMSE = \sqrt{\frac{1}{N} \sum_{i=1}^{N}(y_i -\hat{y}_i)^2 }\]

Where:

Nis the total number of rows (observations) of your corresponding dataframe.yis the actual target value.- \(\hat{y}\) is the predicted target value.

**RMSLE**(Root Mean Squared Logarithmic Error): This metric measures the ratio between actual values and predicted values and takes the log of the predictions and actual values. Use this instead of RMSE if an under-prediction is worse than an over-prediction. You can also use this when you don’t want to penalize large differences when both of the values are large numbers.RMSLE equation:

\[RMSLE = \sqrt{\frac{1}{N} \sum_{i=1}^{N} \big(ln \big(\frac{y_i +1} {\hat{y}_i +1}\big)\big)^2 }\]

Where:

Nis the total number of rows (observations) of your corresponding dataframe.yis the actual target value.- \(\hat{y}\) is the predicted target value.

**RMSPE**(Root Mean Square Percentage Error): This metric is the RMSE expressed as a percentage. The smaller the RMSPE, the better the model performance.RMSPE equation:

\[RMSPE = \sqrt{\frac{1}{N} \sum_{i=1}^{N} \frac{(y_i -\hat{y}_i)^2 }{(y_i)^2}}\]**MAE**(Mean Absolute Error): The mean absolute error is an average of the absolute errors. The MAE units are the same as the predicted target, which is useful for understanding whether the size of the error is of concern or not. The smaller the MAE the better the model’s performance. (**Tip**: MAE is robust to outliers. If you want a metric that is sensitive to outliers, try root mean squared error (RMSE).)MAE equation:

\[MAE = \frac{1}{N} \sum_{i=1}^{N} | x_i - x |\]Where:

*N*is the total number of errors- \(| x_i - x |\) equals the absolute errors.

**MAPE**(Mean Absolute Percentage Error): MAPE measures the size of the error in percentage terms. It is calculated as the average of the unsigned percentage error.MAPE equation:

\[MAPE = \big(\frac{1}{N} \sum \frac {|Actual - Forecast |}{|Actual|} \big) * 100\]

Because the MAPE measure is in percentage terms, it gives an indication of how large the error is across different scales. Consider the following example:

Actual Predicted Absolute Error Absolute Percentage Error 5 1 4 80% 15,000 15,004 4 0.03% Both records have an absolute error of 4, but this error could be considered “small” or “big” when you compare it to the actual value.

**SMAPE**(Symmetric Mean Absolute Percentage Error): Unlike the MAPE, which divides the absolute errors by the absolute actual values, the SMAPE divides by the mean of the absolute actual and the absolute predicted values. This is important when the actual values can be 0 or near 0. Actual values near 0 cause the MAPE value to become infinitely high. Because SMAPE includes both the actual and the predicted values, the SMAPE value can never be greater than 200%.

Consider the following example:

Actual Predicted 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.04 The MAPE for this data is 216.67% but the SMAPE is only 80.95%.

Both records have an absolute error of 4, but this error could be considered “small” or “big” when you compare it to the actual value.

**MER**(Median Error Rate or Median Absolute Percentage Error): MER measures the median size of the error in percentage terms. It is calculated as the median of the unsigned percentage error.MER equation:

\[MER = \big(median \frac {|Actual - Forecast |}{|Actual|} \big) * 100\]

Because the MER is the median, half the scored population has a lower absolute percentage error than the MER, and half the population has a larger absolute percentage error than the MER.

### Classification¶

**MCC**(Matthews Correlation Coefficient): The goal of the MCC metric is to represent the confusion matrix of a model as a single number. The MCC metric combines the true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives using the equation described below.

A Driverless AI model will return probabilities, not predicted classes. To convert probabilities to predicted classes, a threshold needs to be defined. Driverless AI iterates over possible thresholds to calculate a confusion matrix for each threshold. It does this to find the maximum MCC value. Driverless AI’s goal is to continue increasing this maximum MCC.

Unlike metrics like Accuracy, MCC is a good scorer to use when the target variable is imbalanced. In the case of imbalanced data, high Accuracy can be found by simply predicting the majority class. Metrics like Accuracy and F1 can be misleading, especially in the case of imbalanced data, because they do not consider the relative size of the four confusion matrix categories. MCC, on the other hand, takes the proportion of each class into account. The MCC value ranges from -1 to 1 where -1 indicates a classifier that predicts the opposite class from the actual value, 0 means the classifier does no better than random guessing, and 1 indicates a perfect classifier.

MCC equation:

\[MCC = \frac{TP \; x \; TN \; - FP \; x \; FN}{\sqrt{(TP+FP)(TP+FN)(TN+FP)(TN+FN)}}\]

**F05**,**F1**, and**F2**: A Driverless AI model will return probabilities, not predicted classes. To convert probabilities to predicted classes, a threshold needs to be defined. Driverless AI iterates over possible thresholds to calculate a confusion matrix for each threshold. It does this to find the maximum some F metric value. Driverless AI’s goal is to continue increasing this maximum F metric.

The

F1score provides a measure for how well a binary classifier can classify positive cases (given a threshold value). The F1 score is calculated from the harmonic mean of the precision and recall. An F1 score of 1 means both precision and recall are perfect and the model correctly identified all the positive cases and didn’t mark a negative case as a positive case. If either precision or recall are very low it will be reflected with a F1 score closer to 0.F1 equation:

\[F1 = 2 \;\Big(\; \frac{(precision) \; (recall)}{precision + recall}\; \Big)\]Where:

precisionis the positive observations (true positives) the model correctly identified from all the observations it labeled as positive (the true positives + the false positives).recallis the positive observations (true positives) the model correctly identified from all the actual positive cases (the true positives + the false negatives).The

F0.5score is the weighted harmonic mean of the precision and recall (given a threshold value). Unlike the F1 score, which gives equal weight to precision and recall, the F0.5 score gives more weight to precision than to recall. More weight should be given to precision for cases where False Positives are considered worse than False Negatives. For example, if your use case is to predict which products you will run out of, you may consider False Positives worse than False Negatives. In this case, you want your predictions to be very precise and only capture the products that will definitely run out. If you predict a product will need to be restocked when it actually doesn’t, you incur cost by having purchased more inventory than you actually need.F05 equation:

\[F0.5 = 1.25 \;\Big(\; \frac{(precision) \; (recall)}{0.25 \; precision + recall}\; \Big)\]Where:

precisionis the positive observations (true positives) the model correctly identified from all the observations it labeled as positive (the true positives + the false positives).recallis the positive observations (true positives) the model correctly identified from all the actual positive cases (the true positives + the false negatives).The

F2score is the weighted harmonic mean of the precision and recall (given a threshold value). Unlike the F1 score, which gives equal weight to precision and recall, the F2 score gives more weight to recall than to precision. More weight should be given to recall for cases where False Negatives are considered worse than False Positives. For example, if your use case is to predict which customers will churn, you may consider False Negatives worse than False Positives. In this case, you want your predictions to capture all of the customers that will churn. Some of these customers may not be at risk for churning, but the extra attention they receive is not harmful. More importantly, no customers actually at risk of churning have been missed.F2 equation:

\[F2 = 5 \;\Big(\; \frac{(precision) \; (recall)}{4\;precision + recall}\; \Big)\]Where:

precisionis the positive observations (true positives) the model correctly identified from all the observations it labeled as positive (the true positives + the false positives).recallis the positive observations (true positives) the model correctly identified from all the actual positive cases (the true positives + the false negatives).

**Accuracy**: In binary classification, Accuracy is the number of correct predictions made as a ratio of all predictions made. In multiclass classification, the set of labels predicted for a sample must exactly match the corresponding set of labels in y_true.

A Driverless AI model will return probabilities, not predicted classes. To convert probabilities to predicted classes, a threshold needs to be defined. Driverless AI iterates over possible thresholds to calculate a confusion matrix for each threshold. It does this to find the maximum Accuracy value. Driverless AI’s goal is to continue increasing this maximum Accuracy.

Accuracy equation:

\[Accuracy = \Big(\; \frac{\text{number correctly predicted}}{\text{number of observations}}\; \Big)\]

**Logloss**: The logarithmic loss metric can be used to evaluate the performance of a binomial or multinomial classifier. Unlike AUC which looks at how well a model can classify a binary target, logloss evaluates how close a model’s predicted values (uncalibrated probability estimates) are to the actual target value. For example, does a model tend to assign a high predicted value like .80 for the positive class, or does it show a poor ability to recognize the positive class and assign a lower predicted value like .50? Logloss ranges between 0 and 1, with 0 meaning that the model correctly assigns a probability of 0% or 100%.

Binary classification equation:

\[Logloss = - \;\frac{1}{N} \sum_{i=1}^{N}w_i(\;y_i \ln(p_i)+(1-y_i)\ln(1-p_i)\;)\]Multiclass classification equation:

\[Logloss = - \;\frac{1}{N} \sum_{i=1}^{N}\sum_{j=1}^{C}w_i(\;y_i,_j \; \ln(p_i,_j)\;)\]Where:

Nis the total number of rows (observations) of your corresponding dataframe.wis the per row user-defined weight (defaults is 1).Cis the total number of classes (C=2 for binary classification).pis the predicted value (uncalibrated probability) assigned to a given row (observation).yis the actual target value.

**AUC**(Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve): This model metric is used to evaluate how well a binary classification model is able to distinguish between true positives and false positives. An AUC of 1 indicates a perfect classifier, while an AUC of .5 indicates a poor classifier whose performance is no better than random guessing.

H2O uses the trapezoidal rule to approximate the area under the ROC curve. (Tip: AUC is usually not the best metric for an imbalanced binary target because a high number of True Negatives can cause the AUC to look inflated. For an imbalanced binary target, we recommend AUCPR or MCC.)

**AUCPR**(Area under the Precision-Recall Curve): This model metric is used to evaluate how well a binary classification model is able to distinguish between precision recall pairs or points. These values are obtained using different thresholds on a probabilistic or other continuous-output classifier. AUCPR is an average of the precision-recall weighted by the probability of a given threshold.

The main difference between AUC and AUCPR is that AUC calculates the area under the ROC curve and AUCPR calculates the area under the Precision Recall curve. The Precision Recall curve does not care about True Negatives. For imbalanced data, a large quantity of True Negatives usually overshadow the effects of changes in other metrics like False Positives. The AUCPR will be much more sensitive to True Positives, False Positives, and False Negatives than AUC. As such, AUCPR is recommended over AUC for highly imbalanced data.

#### Scorer Best Practices - Regression¶

When deciding which scorer to use in a regression problem, some main questions to ask are:

- Do you want your scorer sensitive to outliers?
- What unit should the scorer be in?

##### Sensitive to Outliers¶

Certain scorers are more sensitive to outliers. When a scorer is sensitive to outliers, it means that it is important that the model predictions are never “very” wrong. For example, let’s say we have an experiment predicting number of days until an event. The graph below shows the absolute error in our predictions.

Usually our model is very good. We have an absolute error less than 1 day about 70% of the time. There is one instance, however, where our model did very poorly. We have one prediction that was 30 days off.

Instances like this will more heavily penalize scorers that are sensitive to outliers. If we do not care about these outliers in poor performance as long as we typically have a very accurate prediction, then we would want to select a scorer that is robust to outliers. We can see this reflected in the behavior of the scorers: `MSE`

and `RMSE`

.

MSE | RMSE | |
---|---|---|

Outlier | 0.99 | 2.64 |

No Outlier | 0.80 | 1.0 |

Calculating the `RMSE`

and `MSE`

on our error data, the `RMSE`

is more than twice as large as the `MSE`

because `RMSE`

is sensitive to outliers. If we remove the one outlier record from our calculation, `RMSE`

drops down significantly.

##### Performance Units¶

Different scorers will show the performance of the Driverless AI experiment in different units. Let’s continue with our example where our target is to predict the number of days until an event. Some possible performance units are:

- Same as target: The unit of the scorer is in days
- ex: MAE = 5 means the model predictions are off by 5 days on average

- Percent of target: The unit of the scorer is the percent of days
- ex: MAPE = 10% means the model predictions are off by 10 percent on average

- Square of target: The unit of the scorer is in days squared
- ex: MSE = 25 means the model predictions are off by 5 days on average (square root of 25 = 5)

##### Comparison¶

Metric | Units | Sensitive to Outliers | Tip |
---|---|---|---|

R2 | scaled between 0 and 1 | No | use when you want perfor mance scaled betwee n 0 and 1 |

MSE | square of target | Yes | |

RMSE | same as target | Yes | |

RMSLE | log of target | Yes | |

RMSPE | percent of target | Yes | use when target values are across differ ent scales |

MAE | same as target | No | |

MAPE | percent of target | No | use when target values are across differ ent scales |

SMAPE | percent of target divided by 2 | No | use when target values close to 0 |

#### Scorer Best Practices - Classification¶

When deciding which scorer to use in a classification problem some main questions to ask are:

- Do you want the scorer to evaluate the predicted probabilities or the classes that those probabilities can be converted to?
- Is your data imbalanced?

##### Scorer Evaluates Probabilities or Classes¶

The final output of a Driverless AI model is a predicted probability that a record is in a particular class. The scorer you choose will either evaluate how accurate the probability is or how accurate the assigned class is from that probability.

Choosing this depends on the use of the Driverless AI model. Do we want to use the probabilities or do we want to convert those probabilities into classes? For example, if we are predicting whether a customer will churn, we may take the predicted probabilities and turn them into classes - customers who will churn vs customers who won’t churn. If we are predicting the expected loss of revenue, we will instead use the predicted probabilities (predicted probability of churn * value of customer).

If your use case requires a class assigned to each record, you will want to select a scorer that evaluates the model’s performance based on how well it classifies the records. If your use case will use the probabilities, you will want to select a scorer that evaluates the model’s performance based on the predicted probability.

##### Robust to Imbalanced Data¶

For certain use cases, positive classes may be very rare. In these instances, some scorers can be misleading. For example, if I have a use case where 99% of the records have `Class = No`

, then a model which always predicts `No`

will have 99% accuracy.

For these use cases, it is best to select a metric that does not include True Negatives or considers relative size of the True Negatives like AUCPR or MCC.

##### Comparison¶

Metric | Evaluation Based On | Tip |
---|---|---|

MCC | Class | good for imbalanced data |

F1 | Class | |

F0.5 | Class | good when you want to give more weight to precision |

F2 | Class | good when you want to give more weight to recall |

Accuracy | Class | highly interpretable |

Logloss | Probability | |

AUC | Class | |

AUCPR | Class | good for imbalanced data |

## New Experiments¶

- Run an experiment by selecting
**[Click for Actions]**button beside the dataset that you want to use. Click**Predict**to begin an experiment.

- The Experiment Settings form displays and auto-fills with the selected dataset. Optionally specify a validation dataset and/or a test dataset.

- The validation set is used to tune parameters (models, features, etc.). If a validation dataset is not provided, the training data is used (with holdout splits). If a validation dataset is provided, training data is not used for parameter tuning - only for training. A validation dataset can help to improve the generalization performance on shifting data distributions.
- The test dataset is used for the final stage scoring and is the dataset for which model metrics will be computed against. Test set predictions will be available at the end of the experiment. This dataset is not used during training of the modeling pipeline.
Keep in mind that these datasets must have the same number of columns as the training dataset. Also note that if provided, the validation set is not sampled down, so it can lead to large memory usage, even if accuracy=1 (which reduces the train size).

- Specify the target (response) column. Note that not all explanatory functionality will be available for multiclass classification scenarios (scenarios with more than two outcomes). When the target column is selected, Driverless AI automatically provides the target column type and the number of rows. If this is a classification problem, then the UI shows unique and frequency statistics (Target Freq/Most Freq) for numerical columns. If this is a regression problem, then the UI shows the dataset mean and standard deviation values.

Notes Regarding Frequency:

- For data imported in versions <= 1.0.19, TARGET FREQ and MOST FREQ both represent the count of the least frequent class for numeric target columns and the count of the most frequent class for categorical target columns.
- For data imported in versions 1.0.20-1.0.22, TARGET FREQ and MOST FREQ both represent the frequency of the target class (second class in lexicographic order) for binomial target columns; the count of the most frequent class for categorical multinomial target columns; and the count of the least frequent class for numeric multinomial target columns.
- For data imported in version 1.0.23 (and later), TARGET FREQ is the frequency of the target class for binomial target columns, and MOST FREQ is the most frequent class for multinomial target columns.

- The next step is to set the parameters and settings for the experiment. (Refer to the Experiment Settings section for more information about these settings.) You can set the parameters individually, or you can let Driverless AI infer the parameters and then override any that you disagree with. Available parameters and settings include the following:

Dropped Columns: The columns we do not want to use as predictors such as ID columns, columns with data leakage, etc.

Weight Column: The column that indicates the per row observation weights. If “None” is specified, each row will have an observation weight of 1.

Fold Column: The column that indicates the fold. If “None” is specified, the folds will be determined by Driverless AI. This is set to “Disabled” if a validation set is used.

Time Column: The column that provides a time order, if applicable. If “AUTO” is specified, Driverless AI will auto-detect a potential time order. If “OFF” is specified, auto-detection is disabled. This is set to “Disabled” if a validation set is used.

Specify the scorer to use for this experiment. The scorers vary based on whether this is a classification or regression experiment. Available scorers include:

- Regression: GINI, R2, MSE, RMSE (default), RMSLE, RMSPE, MAE, MER, MAPE, SMAPE
- Classification: GINI, MCC, F05, F1, F2, ACCURACY, LOGLOSS, AUC (default), AUCPR
Desired relative Accuracy from 1 to 10

Desired relative Time from 1 to 10

Desired relative Interpretability from 1 to 10

Driverless AI will automatically infer the best settings for Accuracy, Time, and Interpretability and provide you with an experiment preview based on those suggestions. If you adjust these knobs, the experiment preview will automatically update based on the new settings.

Expert Settings (optional):Optionally specify additional expert settings for the experiment. Refer to the Expert Settings section for more information about these settings. The default values for these options are derived from the environment variables in the config.toml file. Refer to the Setting Environment Variables section for more information.

- Optionally specify whether to build:
- XGBoost GBM models
- XGBoost GLM models
- TensorFlow models

- Optionally specify whether to enable:
- RuleFit support
- LightGBM support
- Data distribution shift detection
- Time Series lag-based features
- Whether to build a Python scoring pipeline for the experiment when it is completed.
- Whether to build a MOJO scoring pipeline for the experiment when it is completed.
- Smart imbalanced sampling

- Optionally specify a random seed, the maximum number of pipeline features, a feature engineering effort value, the maximum feature interaction depth, the maximum allowed fraction of uniques for integer and categorical columns, the threshold for string columns to be treated as text, the maximum number of TensorFlow epochs (ignored if TensorFlow is disabled), the maximum number of trees to build, the maximum learning rate for tree models, the number of cores to use, the number of GPUs to use per model and experiment, and the GPU starting ID.

Additional settings (optional):

- If this is a classification problem, then click the
Classificationbutton. Note that Driverless AI determines the problem type based on the response column. Though not recommended, you can override this setting and specify whether this is a classification or regression problem.- Click the
Reproduciblebutton to build this with a random seed.- Specify whether to enable GPUs. (Note that this option is ignored on CPU-only systems.)

- Click
**Launch Experiment**to start the experiment.

The experiment launches with a randomly generated experiment name. You can change this name at anytime during or after the experiment. Mouse over the name of the experiment to view an edit icon, then type in the desired name.

As the experiment runs, a running status displays in the upper middle portion of the UI. First Driverless AI figures out the backend and determines whether GPUs are running. Then it starts parameter tuning, followed by feature engineering. Finally, Driverless AI builds the scoring pipeline.

In addition to the status, the UI also displays:

- Details about the dataset.
- The iteration data (internal validation) for each cross validation fold along with the specified scorer value. Click on a specific iteration or drag to view a range of iterations. Double click in the graph to reset the view.
- The variable importance values. To view variable importance for a specific iteration, just select that iteration in the Iteration Data graph. The Variable Importance list will automatically update to show variable importance information for that iteration. Hover over an entry to view more info.
- CPU/Memory information including Notifications, Logs, and Trace info.
For classification problems, the lower right section includes a toggle between an ROC curve, Precision-Recall graph, Lift chart, Gains chart, and GPU Usage information (if GPUs are available). For regression problems, the lower right section includes a toggle between an Actual vs. Predicted chart and GPU Usage information (if GPUs are available). (Refer to the Experiment Graphs section for more information.) Upon completion, an Experiment Summary section will populate in the lower right section.

The bottom portion of the experiment screen will show any warnings that Driverless AI encounters. You can hide this pane by clicking the

xicon.You can stop experiments that are currently running. Click the

Finishbutton to stop the experiment. This jumps the experiment to the end and completes the ensembling and the deployment package. You can also clickAbortto terminate the experiment. (You will be prompted to confirm the abort.) Note that aborted experiments will not display on the Experiments page.

## Completed Experiment¶

After an experiment status changes from RUNNING to COMPLETE, the UI provides you with several options:

- Interpret this Model: Refer to Interpreting a Model. (Not available for time series experiments.)
- Score on Another Dataset: Refer to Score on Another Dataset.
- Transform Another Dataset: Refer to Transform Another Dataset.
- Download (Holdout) Training Predictions: In csv format, available if a validation set was NOT provided.
- Download Validation Predictions: In csv format, available if a validation set was provided.
- Download Test Predictions: In csv format, available if a test dataset is used.
- Download Python Scoring Pipeline: A standalone Python scoring pipeline for H2O Driverless AI. Refer to Driverless AI Standaone Python Scoring Pipeline.
- Build MOJO Scoring Pipeline: A standalone Model Object, Optimized scoring pipeline. Refer to Driverless AI MOJO Scoring Pipeline.
- Download Experiment Summary: A zip file containing the following files. Refer to Experiment Summary for more information.

- A summary of the experiment
- The experiment features along with their relative importance
- Ensemble information
- An experiment preview
- PDF and markdown versions of an auto-generated report for the experiment
- A target transformations tuning leaderboard
- A tuning leaderboard
- Download Logs
- View Notifications/Warnings (if any existed)

## Experiment Graphs¶

This section describes the dashboard graphs that display for running and completed experiments. These graphs are interactive. Hover over a point on the graph for more details about the point.

### Binary Classfication Experiments¶

For Binary Classification experiments, Driverless AI shows ROC Curves, a Precision-Recall graph, a Lift chart, and a Gains chart.

**ROC**: This shows Receiver-Operator Characteristics curve stats on validation data. The area under this curve is called AUC. The True Positive Rate (TPR) is the relative fraction of correct positive predictions, and the False Positive Rate (FPR) is the relative fraction of incorrect positive corrections. Each point corresponds to a classification threshold (e.g., YES if probability >= 0.3 else NO). For each threshold, there is a unique confusion matrix that represents the balance between TPR and FPR. Most useful operating points are in the top left corner in general.

Hover over a point in the ROC curve to see the True Positive, True Negative, False Positive, False Negative, Threshold, FPR, TPR, Accuracy, F1, and MCC value for that point.

**Precision-Recall**: This shows the Precision-Recall curve on validation data. The area under this curve is called AUCPR.

- Precision: correct positive predictions (TP) / all positives (TP + FP).
- Recall: correct positive predictions (TP) / positive predictions (TP + FN).
Each point corresponds to a classification threshold (e.g., YES if probability >= 0.3 else NO). For each threshold, there is a unique confusion matrix that represents the balance between Recall and Precision. This ROCPR curve can be more insightful than the ROC curve for highly imbalanced datasets.

Hover over a point in this graph to see the True Positive, True Negative, False Positive, False Negative, Threshold, Recall, Precision, Accuracy, F1, and MCC value for that point.

**Lift**: This chart shows lift stats on validation data. For example, “How many times more observations of the positive target class are in the top predicted 1%, 2%, 10%, etc. (cumulative) compared to selecting observations randomly?” By definition, the Lift at 100% is 1.0.

Hover over a point in the Lift chart to view the quantile percentage and cumulative lift value for that point.

**Gains**: This shows Gains stats on validation data. For example, “What fraction of all observations of the positive target class are in the top predicted 1%, 2%, 10%, etc. (cumulative)?” By definition, the Gains at 100% are 1.0.

Hover over a point in the Gains chart to view the quantile percentage and cumulative gain value for that point.

### Multiclass Classification Experiments¶

The ROC curve, Precision-Recall, Lift chart, and Gains chart are also shown for multiclass problems. Driverless AI does this by considering the multi-class problem as multiple one-vs-all problems. This method is known as micro-averaging (reference: http://scikit-learn.org/stable/auto_examples/model_selection/plot_roc.html#multiclass-settings).

For example, you may want to predict the species in the iris data. The predictions would look something like this:

class.Iris-setosa | class.Iris-versicolor | class.Iris-virginica |

0.9628 | 0.021 | 0.0158 |

0.0182 | 0.3172 | 0.6646 |

0.0191 | 0.9534 | 0.0276 |

To create the ROC, Lift, and Gains chart, Driverless AI converts the results to 3 one-vs-all problems:

prob-setosa | actual-setosa | prob-versicolor | actual-versicolor | prob-virginica | actual-virginica | ||

0.9628 | 1 | 0.021 | 0 | 0.0158 | 0 | ||

0.0182 | 0 | 0.3172 | 1 | 0.6646 | 0 | ||

0.0191 | 0 | 0.9534 | 1 | 0.0276 | 0 |

The result is 3 vectors of predicted and actual values for binomial problems. Driverless AI concatenates these 3 vectors together to compute the ROC curve, lift, and gains chart.

```
predicted = [0.9628, 0.0182, 0.0191, 0.021, 0.3172, 0.9534, 0.0158, 0.6646, 0.0276]
actual = [1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0]
```

#### Multiclass Confusion Matrix¶

Hover over a point in the ROC or Precision Recall graph to view a Multiclass Confusion Matrix for that point.

For each threshold, the confusion matrix that represents the balance between TPR and FPR (ROC) or Precision and Recall (Prec-Recall). In general, most useful operating points are in the top left corner.

### Regression Experiments¶

An Actual vs. Predicted table displays for Regression experiments. This shows Actual vs Predicted values on validation data. A small sample of values are displayed. A perfect model has a diagonal line.

Hover over a point on the graph to view the Actual and Predicted values for that point.